Vitamins and minerals

March 20, 2015 - Nutrition

What are vitamins and minerals?

Vitamins are metabolic catalysts that regulate biochemical reactions within your body.They contain in the plants and are created by the plants themselves. Minerals are natural substances that plants must absorb from the soil. Our bodies cannot manufacture vitamins and minerals, we must obtain them through our diet. By eating a variety of wholesome foods, you can consume the right balance of vitamins and minerals needed for optimal health and performance. To date 14 vitamins and 15 minerals have been discovered, each with a specific function. The best way to get all the needed vitamins and minerals is to eat a variety of foods from all the food groups.Taking a general multivitamins is unlikely to be harmful, but is not recommended high doses of vitamin C,E,beta-carotene,selenium and manganese because they might have negative effects on the immune system.Compared with inactive people most athletes consume more calories and therefore more vitamins and minerals.Deficiencies are more likely to occur in a sedentary person who eats very little.Vitamin and mineral deficiencies develops over the course of months or years. Your body stores some vitamins in stockpiles(A,D,E and K-the fat-soluble vitamins) and other in smaller amounts(B and C-the water-soluble vitamins. Most healthy people have enough vitamin C stored in the liver to last six weeks.

Does taking vitamin supplements improve your health?

The latest results of carefully conducted clinical research suggest that many supplements are not as effective as hyped;

1.Multivitamins have not been shown to offer a clear health benefit.
2.Antioxidants(A,E,C, and beta-carotene) do not protect against heart disease(Marchioli et al. 2001). Recent studies have shown no benefits , but in fact,possible earlier death with high doses.(Bjelakovic et al. 2007)
3.Antioxidants for athletes have shown potential harm and no benefits.The consensus to date is that daily high-dose antioxidant vitamin supplementation is unlikely to be of real practical benefit(Davison, Gleeson and Phillips 2007)
4.Chromium does not help to lose body fat.
5.B vitamins do not reduce the risk of heart desiase,stroke,and memory loss.
6.Zinc does not prevent colds.

Taking a multivitamin and mineral supplement does not compensate for a high-fat, iow-fiber,junk food diet.

Taking a simple multivitamin and mineral pill is good for individuals who are at risk of developing nutrition deficiencies. Example are the following categories .

Restricting calories.
Dieters who eat less than 1200 calories daily may miss some important nutrients.

Allergic to certain foods.
People who can’t eat certain types of foods need to compensate with alternative vitamin sources to avoid deficiencies.

Lactose intolerant.
The inability to digest the milk sugar found in dairy products can result in a diet deficient in riboflavin,vitamin D,and calcium.

An indoor athlete.
If you spend little time in the sun you might miss vitamin D-the sunshine vitamin.15 minutes of regular activity in the sunshine is enough to get the daily dose.Milk fortified with vitamin D is a good alternative.

Total vegetarians may become deficient in vitamin B12,vitamin D,and riboflavin.Those who eat a poorly balanced vegetarian diet can also become deficient in protein,iron and zinc.

Poor nutrition is common among elderly people who eat few calories.The fewer the calories , the higher the risk of vitamin and mineral deficiencies.

How the vitamins work?

Vitamin A (Beta Carotene)

A powerful anti-oxidant which helps protect the cells against cancer by neutralizing “Free Radicals,” necessary for new cell growth; guards against heart disease and stroke; lowers cholesterol levels; slows the aging process; protects against colds, flu and infections of the kidneys, bladder, lungs and mucous membranes; promotes healthy wrinkle-free skin, and helps in the removal of age spots and acne; promotes healthy hair and nails; protects against air pollutants and counteracts night blindness and weak eye sight; builds resistance to infections; slows the progression of osteoarthritis and cataracts; helps prevent macular degeneration of the eyes. BETA CAROTENE IS A SAFE NON-TOXIC FORM OF VITAMIN A.

Deficiency symptoms; May result in night blindness; increased susceptibility to infections; rough, dry, scaly skin; loss of smell & appetite; frequents fatigue; lack of tearing; defective teeth & gums’ retarded growth.

VITAMIN B-1 (Thiamin)

Known as the “Morale Vitamin” because of its beneficial effects on the nervous system and mental attitude. It enhances circulation, assists in blood formation, carbohydrate metabolism and digestion; plays a key role in generating energy; promotes good muscle tone; acts as an anti-oxidant, protecting the body from degenerative effects of aging; helps prevent reoccurring canker sores; helps maintain a healthy nervous system; prevents depression, alleviates fatigue, optimizes brain function and mental alertness; has been used to treat numbness of the hands and feet, poor circulation, tingling sensations, weak or sore muscles, forgetfulness, heavy breathing, and irritability.

Deficiency symptoms; May lead to the loss of appetite ; weakness & feeling tired; paralysis & nervous irritability; insomnia; loss of weight; vague aches & pains; mental depression & constipation; heart & gastrointestinal problems.

VITAMIN B-2 (Riboflavin)

Necessary for red blood cell formation, anti-body production, cell respiration, and growth; alleviates eye fatigue, and is important in the prevention of cataracts; aids in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins; promotes the oxygenation of the skin, hair, and nails; eliminates dandruff; aids in the release of energy from food; reduces the occurrence of migraine headaches; helps eliminate cracked mouth, lips, and tongue; supports the production of adrenal hormones.

Deficiency symptoms; May result in itching and burning eyes; cracks and sores in the mouth & lips; bloodshot eyes; purplish tongue; dermatitis; retarded growth; digestive disturbances; trembling; sluggishness; oily skin.

VITAMIN B-6 (Pyridoxine)

Can significantly reduce the risk of heart disease by inhibiting the formation of homocysteine, a toxic chemical that attacks the heart muscle and allows the deposition of cholesterol around the heart muscle; aids in maintaining the central nervous system and normal brain function; reduces muscle spasms, leg cramps and stiffness of the hands; relieves nausea and migraines, lowers cholesterol; improves vision, and aids in the prevention of PMS; promotes red blood cell formation; aids the immune system and antibody production; aids in cancer immunity and in the prevention of atherosclerosis; is destroyed by alcoholic beverages.

Deficiency symptoms; May result in nervousness, insomnia, skin eruptions, loss of muscular control, anemia, mouth disorders, muscular weakness, dermatitis, arm & leg cramps, loss of hair, slow learning, and water retention

VITAMIN B-12 (Cobalamin)

Helps in the formation of red blood cells, thus helping prevent anemia; increases energy levels; promotes a healthy immune system, and nerve function; is required for the proper digestion of foods, the synthesis of protein, and the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats; aids in cell formation and cellular longevity; prevents nerve damage; improves concentration, memory, and balance; may protect against smoking-induced cancer.

Deficiency symptoms; chronic fatigue, bone loss, constipation, depression, digestive disorders, dizziness, drowsiness, enlargement of the liver, eye disorders, hallucinations, headaches, labored breathing, memory loss, moodiness, nervousness, pernicious anemia, ringing in the ears, binge eating, and spinal cord degeneration.

NIACINAMIDE (Niacin- vitamin B-3)

Dilates blood vessels, thus increasing circulation and reducing high blood pressure; significantly lowers blood cholesterol and triglycerides; improves resistance to stress; regulates blood sugar; treats dizziness and ringing in the ears; helps prevent depression, mental illness, and migraine headaches; aids in the functioning of the nervous system; helps eliminate canker sores and bad breath; protects against pollutants and toxins; gives you healthier looking skin and stimulates the sex drive.

Deficiency symptoms; May result in pellagra, gastrointestinal disturbance, nervousness, headaches, fatigue, mental depression, vague aches & pains, irritability, loss of appetite, insomnia, skin disorders, muscular weakness, indigestion, bad breath, canker sores.


Is considered the “Anti-Stress” Vitamin because of its important role in the functioning of the adrenal glands, which produce hormones that help our bodies respond to stress; plays an important role in making hemoglobin, which transports oxygen throughout our bodies; helpful in detoxifying harmful chemicals such as herbicides and insecticides; along with anti-oxidants, zinc, copper, and vitamin D, will prevent accelerated joint degeneration, by encouraging your body’s ability to regenerate cartilage; fights infections by building antibodies; prevents fatigue, and used by athletes to boost performance; used to reduce the adverse and toxic effects of many antibiotics; stimulates the release of energy from carbohydrates, fats and protein; promotes the production of red blood cells and sex hormones; helps with rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and menopausal discomforts; lowers high cholesterol and triglycerides.

Deficiency symptoms; May lead to painful & burning feet, skin abnormalities, retarded growth, dizzy spells, digestive disturbances, vomiting, restlessness, stomach stress, muscle cramps.


Aids in the utilization of protein and other nutrients; aids in cell growth and fatty acid production; promotes the health of sweat glands, nerve tissue, bone marrow, male sex glands, blood cells, skin and hair; cures some forms of baldness, and is used in preventative treatments for baldness; prevents the hair from turning prematurely gray; alleviates eczema and dermatitis; alleviates muscle pain; may help reduce blood sugar levels in people with either type 1 or type 2 diabetes.

Deficiency symptoms; May lead to extreme exhaustion, drowsiness, muscle pain, loss of appetite, depression, grayish skin color.


May reduce the risk of a heart attack by lowering homocysteine levels. In recent years, high levels of homocysteine have been found to be associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries due to the accumulation of fatty plaques). Protects against birth defects by helping regulate embryonic and fetal nerve cell formation; protects against intestinal parasites and food poisoning; may delay graying hair when used in conjunction with pantothenic acid and PABA; promotes healthier looking skin, is considered a brain food; is needed for energy production, and the formation of red blood cells; strengthens the immune system by aiding the proper formation and functioning of white blood cells; important for healthy cell division and replication.

Deficiency symptoms; May result in gastrointestinal disorders, anemia, Vitamin B-12 deficiency, pre-mature gray hair.


Is vital for hair growth; promotes strong healthy hair, and aids in preventing fallout; high levels of this nutrient is found in the heart and brain; creates a calming effect and reduces blood cholesterol; prevents hardening of the arteries, and is important in the formation of lecithin and the metabolism of fat and cholesterol; removes fat from the liver; aids in redistribution of body fat; helps prevent eczema; has been used for depression, panic attacks and diabetes.

Deficiency symptoms; May result in high blood cholesterol, constipation, eczema, hair loss.


A “super nutrient” for the liver and brain; needed for the proper transmission of nerve impulse from the brain through the central nervous system; is able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and go directly into brain cells to produce acetylcholine, a chemical that aids memory; aids in the treatment of Alzheimer’s and other age-related memory loss; aids in hormone production; is important in controlling fat and cholesterol build-up in the body; emulsifies (breaks down) cholesterol so that it doesn’t settle on artery walls or in the gallbladder; used for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and the metabolism of homocysteine; helps eliminate poisons and drugs from your system by aiding the liver; used to treat liver damage caused by alcoholism.

Deficiency symptoms; May result in cirrhosis and fatty degeneration of the liver, hardening of the arteries, heart problems, high blood pressure, hemorrhaging kidneys.

PABA (Para Amino Benzoic Acid)

An anti-oxidant which helps in the formation of red blood cells; aids in the maintenance of healthy intestinal flora; acts as a coenzyme in the breakdown and utilization of protein; may restore gray hair to its original color if the graying was caused by stress or a nutritional deficiency; protects against second hand smoke, ozone, and other air pollutants; reduces inflammation caused by arthritis; improves flexibility; helps keep skin smooth; has been used to prevent and reverse accumulation of abnormal fibrous tissue, as occurs in various connective tissue diseases.

Deficiency symptoms; May cause extreme fatigue, eczema, irritability, depressions, nervousness, constipation, headaches, digestive disorders, hair turning prematurely gray.

VITAMIN C (Ascorbic Acid)

A major and very potent anti-oxidant; plays a primary role in the formation of collagen, which is important for the growth and repair of body tissue cells, gums, blood vessels, bones and teeth; protects against the harmful effects of pollution; protects against infection, and enhances the immune system; helps protect against many forms of cancer by counteracting the formation of nitrosamines (cancer-causing substances); protects against abnormal blood clotting and bruising, and may reduce the risk of cataracts; aids in the treatment and prevention of the common cold; prevents scurvy; reduces the effects of many allergy producing substances; helps lower blood pressure; is vital for wound healing; strengthens the blood vessels; reduces cholesterol and protects against heart disease; aids in the production of “anti-stress” hormones; is needed for healthy adrenal function; helps expel heavy metals and other toxic substances from the body.

Deficiency symptoms; May lead to soft & bleeding gums, swollen or painful joints, slow-healing wounds & fractures, bruising, nosebleeds, tooth decay, loss of appetite, muscular weakness, skin hemorrhages, capillary weakness, anemia, impaired digestion


Is essential for the proper absorption and use of Vitamin C; promotes vascular health; protects and preserves the structure of capillaries, which will help prevent bruising, varicose veins and hemorrhoids; helps prevent blood clotting and platelet clumping by making the blood less sticky; lowers cholesterol levels; treats and prevents cataracts, glaucoma, and other vision problems; when taken with Vitamin C may reduce the symptoms of oral herpes.


A very potent bioflavonoid found in red wine, green tea, tomatoes, onions, and green beans. A natural anti-oxidant, which protects cells in the body from damage by “free radicals”. Heart disease and high cholesterol is partially caused by free radical damage to blood vessels. May protect against heart attacks and strokes; recommended as a treatment for allergies, hay fever, and asthma because it helps prevent immune cells from releasing histamine, the chemical that initiates the itching, sneezing, and swelling of an allergic reaction; helps prevent itchy eyes, runny noses, and scratchy throats; in animal studies has shown to protect against a variety of cancers; may help stop cancer at its earliest stage by preventing the damaging changes in the cells that initiate cancer.


A deficiency plays a key role in the development of type 1 diabetes. Vitamin D is needed for islet cells to produce insulin, the hormone that allows cells to take up blood sugar. Without enough Vitamin D, islet cells don’t produce insulin. Helps regulate white blood cells that make up the immune system; Vitamin D with calcium has shown to reduce osteoporosis and hip fractures; improves the absorption and utilization of calcium and phosphorus; hardens and repairs bones; prevents rickets, treats hypocalcaemia, and promotes normal growth in children; supports the healthy function of the thyroid gland; may help prevent colon cancer.

Deficiency symptoms; May lead to rickets, tooth decay, softening of bones, improper healing of fractures, lack of vigor, muscular weakness, inadequate absorption of calcium, retention of phosphorous in the kidneys.


Is a “super” anti-oxidant, which protects cells against damage caused by “free radicals”. Is extremely important in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease, and is useful in treating premenstrual syndrome and fibrocystic disease of the breast. Thus far, studies have shown, that Vitamin E protects against approximately eighty diseases. It prevents thick scar formation when applied topically, and accelerates the healing of burns. It reduces blood pressure, aids in preventing cataracts, relieves leg cramps, and enhances sperm production; promotes healthy skin and hair and prevents age spots; retards cellular aging due to oxidation; prevents and dissolves blood clots; slows the progression of Alzheimer’s disease; significantly strengthens the immune system; supplies oxygen to the blood which is then carried to the heart and other organs thus alleviating fatigue; treats circulatory problems and prevents lung toxicity from air pollution; enhances sexual performance; improves muscle strength and stamina. Studies have shown that low levels of Vitamin E in the blood increases the risk of certain types of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract, breast, prostate, lung, and colon. Studies have shown that Vitamin E improves insulin action and it exerts a number of beneficial effects that aids in preventing long-term complications of diabetes, especially cardiovascular disease. Studies have shown that those who took Vitamin E on a regular basis had a 41 % lower risk of heart disease. Other studies have shown that people with existing heart disease, who started taking 400-800 IU of Vitamin E daily, had a 70% reduction in the number of heart attacks as compared to a placebo group.

Note: There are three forms of Vitamin E on the market: (1) 100% Synthetic (2) Blended (contains 95% Synthetic and 5% Natural) (3) 100% Natural. Synthetic E is much less effective (only 5 to 20% as much biological activity) as the 100% Natural form. Synthetic Vitamin E is usually made from petroleum, turpentine, sugar, and artificial preservatives. According to the New York Academy of Sciences, synthetic Vitamin E has been shown to block the absorption of natural Vitamin E from food. The FDA allows the blended form of Vitamin E to be labeled as “Natural E” even though it only contains 5% natural products. As a result, consumers are mislead into thinking it is a 100% Natural E, when it is not! It’s 95% synthetic. The 100% Natural form of Vitamin E is derived from soybeans and contains 5 times more biological activity than the synthetic form.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May lead to a rupture of red blood cells, loss of reproductive powers, lack of sexual vitality, abnormal fat deposits in muscles, degenerative changes in the changes in the heart and other muscles; dry skin.

How the minerals work

As important as vitamins are, they can do nothing for you without minerals. Vitamins cannot be assimilated without the aid of minerals. Although the body can manufacture a few vitamins, it cannot manufacture a single mineral. All tissue and internal fluids contain varying quantities of minerals. Minerals are constituents of the bones, teeth, soft tissue, muscle, blood, and nerve cells. They are vital to overall mental and physical well-being.

HOW THEY WORK: Minerals act as catalysts for many biological reactions within the body, including, muscle response, the transmission of messages through the nervous system, and the utilization of nutrients in food.


A trace mineral needed by the body in only minuscule amounts; assists in the proper absorption of calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D, especially in older people; maintains healthy bones and prevents osteoporosis; slows the loss of minerals through urination; plays an important role in joint health and has helped those with rheumatoid arthritis; helps to raise estrogen levels, which could prevent bone loss; needed for proper muscle growth; enhances brain function and promotes mental alertness; plays a key role in how the body utilizes energy from fats and sugars.


IMPORTANCE: Builds strong bones and teeth; treats and prevents osteoporosis; important in the maintenance of a regular heartbeat and in the transmission of nerve impulses; lowers cholesterol levels and helps prevent cardiovascular disease; an effective treatment for PMS; recommended for attention deficit disorders, migraine headaches and periodontal disease; reduces the risk of colon cancer, by neutralizing the toxic effects of cancer promoting fats; reduces the formation of polyps; lowers blood pressure; prevents leg cramps, maintains bone density and strength; helps prevent insomnia and anxiety. A deficiency may lead to aching joints, brittle nails, eczema, elevated blood cholesterol, heart palpitations, high blood pressure, insomnia, muscle cramps, nervousness, numbness in the arms and/or legs, rheumatoid arthritis, rickets, and tooth decay. A high protein diet, caffeine from coffee, carbonated beverages, alcohol, and antacids can diminish calcium levels in your body.

Calcium Carbonate – An excellent form of calcium and the most common found in food supplements. It is refined and purified and contains no toxic metals, such as lead and aluminum. This form of calcium is a little harder to absorb if you have low stomach acid, therefore should be taken with meals to improve absorption.

Calcium Citrate – Is calcium carbonate bound with Citrate Acid. It is easily absorbed regardless of the output of stomach acid.

Calcium Aspartate – Is calcium carbonate bound with Aspartic Acid. It is easily absorbed regardless of the output of stomach acid.

Calcium Lactate – Is calcium carbonate bound with Lactic Acid. It is easily absorbed regardless of the output of stomach acid.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in arm and leg muscles spasms, softening of bones, back and leg cramps, brittle bones, rickets, poor growth, osteoporosis ( a deterioration of the bones), tooth decay, depression.


IMPORTANCE: Is involved in the metabolism of glucose and is vital in the breakdown of cholesterol, fats, and proteins; maintains stable blood sugar levels through proper insulin utilization; keeping blood sugar levels normal is important because high levels of either can cause damaging effects on the cells lining the arteries, which can cause circulation problems that may lead to clogged arteries; will reduce blood sugar and insulin levels in people with full blown type 2 diabetes; the “Picolinate” form is easily absorbed in the body’s cells; helps prevent sugar cravings and sudden drops in energy; promotes a healthy circulatory system; has been used as a treatment for migraine headaches, psoriasis and acne; can prevent anxiety and fatigue; is used extensively by athletes and dieters because it promotes fat loss and increases lean muscle tissue.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in glucose intolerance in diabetics; arteriosclerosis, heart disease, depressed growth, obesity, tiredness.


IMPORTANCE: Aids in the formation of bone, hemoglobin, and red blood cells; promotes connective tissue formation and central nervous system function; works with Vitamin C and zinc to form elastin, a chief component in skin tissue and muscle fibers; is involved in the healing process, energy production, hair and skin coloring, and taste sensitivity; is important for the formation of collagen, one of the fundamental proteins making up bone, skin and connective tissue.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in general weakness, impaired respiration, skin sores.


IMPORTANCE: The thyroid gland adds iodine to the amino acid tyrosine to create thyroid hormone; aids in the functioning of the thyroid gland which regulates the body’s production of energy, helps burn excess fat by stimulating the rate of metabolism; improves mental alacrity; may be helpful in cyclic mastalgia; keeps the skin, hair and nails healthy.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in an enlarged thyroid gland, slow mental reaction, dry skin & hair, goiter, weight gain, loss of physical & mental vigor.


IMPORTANCE: Important in the formation of hemoglobin, the oxygen carrying factor in red blood cells; nourishes every cell in the body with oxygen; without it your body could not make ATP (the body’s primary energy source), produce DNA, or carry out many other critical functions; has shown to improve restless legs syndrome; is necessary for the proper metabolism of 8-Vitamins; prevents anemia and fatigue; promotes good skin tone, and stimulates the immune system; decreases the craving for alcohol.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in weakness, paleness of skin, constipation, anemia and a bizarre disorder called “pica” where doctors have reported cases of people eating dirt, chalk, clay, paste, paper, cardboard, ice chips and Styrofoam.


IMPORTANCE: Necessary for Calcium and Vitamin C metabolism; converts blood sugars into energy; regulates the neuromuscular activity of the heart, and improves energy production within the heart; dilates the coronary arteries; helps maintain normal heart rhythm; has been used in treating fibromyalgia, migraine and tension headaches, premenstrual syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, hearing loss, binge-eating disorders, tinnitus, and high blood pressure; aids in bone growth and strengthens tooth enamel; controls bad breath and body odor; helps burn fat and aids in fighting depression; prevents calcium deposits, kidney stones, and gallstones; when combined with calcium acts as a natural tranquilizer; promotes relaxation of the bronchial muscles, thus opening airways and making breathing easier; reduces hyperactivity in children, and may help with ADD (attention deficit disorder); eliminates mental confusion, irritability, loss of appetite, insomnia, and muscle cramps. An excessive intake of Calcium will reduce your body’s level of Magnesium.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in calcium depletion, heart spasms, nervousness, muscular excitability, confusion; kidney stones.


IMPORTANCE: Needed for protein and fat metabolism, normal bone growth, a healthy nervous system, proper bowel function, and an optimal immune system; used in the formation of cartilage and synovial (lubricating) fluid of the joints; works with the 8 Vitamins to give you an overall feeling of well-being; aids in the formation of mother’s milk; necessary for the proper digestion and utilization of food; functions in many enzyme systems, including enzymes involved in blood sugar control, energy metabolism, and thyroid hormone function; increases the activity of the anti-oxidant enzyme (SOD), this enzyme is responsible for preventing the superoxide free radical from destroying cellular components.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in paralysis, convulsions, dizziness, ataxia, loss of hearing, digestive problems, blindness and deafness in infants.


IMPORTANCE: A trace mineral needed by the body in only minuscule amounts. Provides energy and vigor by aiding in carbohydrate and fat metabolism; helps with alcohol detoxification and sulfur metabolism; plays a role in the detoxification of cancer-causing chemicals; helps prevent tooth decay; promotes normal cell function; activates the enzyme that produces uric acid – the substance that helps carry excess nitrogen out of the body when you urinate.


IMPORTANCE: Needed for blood clotting, bone and teeth formation, cell growth, contraction of the heart muscle, normal heart rhythm, and kidney function; assists the body in the utilization of vitamins and the conversion of food into energy; is involved in virtually all physiological chemical reactions.


IMPORTANCE: An extremely important electrolyte which is essential for a healthy nervous system and a regular heart rhythm; helps prevents strokes, aids in proper muscle contraction, and works with sodium to control the body’s water balance; aids in maintaining stable blood pressure and in transmitting electrochemical impulses; regulates the transfer of nutrients through cell membranes; together with magnesium, can help prevent kidney stones; promotes healthy adrenal glands; helps stop the buildup of cholesterol-laden plaque; aids in clear thinking by sending oxygen to the brain, stimulates the kidneys to eliminate poisonous body wastes; very effective in reducing high blood pressure, keeps the heart muscle strong, and prevents leg cramps.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in poor reflexes, nervous disorders, respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, muscle damage.


IMPORTANCE: A major anti-oxidant which protect cell membranes; preserves tissue elasticity and youthfulness of the skin; protects and stimulates the immune system; protects against various types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, strokes and heart attacks; protects against cataract formation; alleviates hot flashes and menopausal distress; helps in the treatment and prevention of dandruff and dry skin; raises sperm count and increase fertility in men; protects against a variety of viral infections; plays a vital role in regulating the effects of thyroid hormone on fat metabolism; when combined with Vitamin E & Zinc may provide relief from an enlarged prostate; protects the liver in people with alcoholic cirrhosis; decreases platelet clotting in the bloodstream; slows down aging and hardening of tissues through oxidation; may help protect against the damage caused by air pollution and smoke.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in premature aging, heart disease, psoriasis, dandruff, loose skin, eczema.


IMPORTANCE: Necessary for the formation of collagen for bones and connective tissue; promotes healthy nails, skin, and hair; maintains flexible arteries; plays a major role in preventing cardiovascular disease; counteracts the effects of aluminum on the body, and is believed to be important in the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and osteoporosis; stimulates the immune system and inhibits the aging process in tissues; important for calcium absorption; improves the elasticity and thickness of the skin.


Minute portions can powerfully affect health. They are necessary for oxygen transport, energy metabolism, growth, and cell and nerve protection. They are essential in the assimilation and utilization of vitamins and other nutrients. They aid in the digestion process and provide the catalyst for many hormones, enzymes, and essential body functions and reactions. They aid in replacing electrolytes lost through heavy perspiration or diarrhea. They also protect against toxic reaction and heavy metal poisoning.


Over 300 enzymes in the body need zinc to order to function properly; is needed to make important antioxidant enzymes; is essential for protein synthesis and collagen formation; governs the caontractibility of muscles; helps in the formation of insulin; helps prevent macular degeneration (one of the most common causes of vision loss in the elderly), and helps prevent the onset of cataracts; important for blood stability; exerts a normalizing effect on the prostate and is important in the development of all reproductive organs; is critical in the male sex drive and is involved in hormone metabolism, sperm formation and sperm motility; helps prevent and reduces the length and severity of the common .cold; helps decrease cholesterol deposits; helps heal stomach ulcers, relieves symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis; prevents acne outbreaks, and regulates the activity of oil glands; promotes a healthy immune system and the healing of wounds; has shown to be important in brain function and in the treatment of schizophrenia; makes your fingernails strong and gets rid of white spots on your nails; helps prevent cancer sores, loss of appetite, taste and smell problems, dermatitis, and binge-eating; believed to retard the aging process.

DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS: May result in delayed sexual maturity, prolonged healing wounds, white spots on finger nails, retarded growth, stretch marks, fatigue, decreased alertness, susceptibility to infections.